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    Apr 2006
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    Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 2006, 44(3), pp198-211
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A rationale for determining, testing, and controlling specific impurities in pharmaceuticals that possess potential for genotoxicity

Andino MM; Beels C; De Antonis D; De Knaep AGM; DeGeorge J; Ellison D; Fagerland JA; Frank R; Fritschel B; Galloway S; Harpur E; Humfrey CDN; Jacks AS; Jagota N; Mackinnon J; Mauthe RJ; Mohan G; Müller L; Ness DK; O'Donovan MR; Riley CM; Smith MD; Vudathala G; Yotti L;

The synthesis of pharmaceutical products frequently involves the use of reactive reagents and the formation of intermediates and by-products. Low levels of some of these may be present in the final drug substance and drug product as impurities. Such chemically reactive impurities may have at the same time the potential for unwanted toxicities including genotoxicity and carcinogenicity and hence can have an impact on product risk assessment. This paper outlines a procedure for testing, classification, qualification, toxicological risk assessment, and control of impurities possessing genotoxic potential in pharmaceutical products. Referencing accepted principles of cancer risk assessment, this document proposes a stagedthreshold of toxicological concern (TTC) approach for the intake of genotoxic impurities over various periods of exposure.

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